They bite, they’re annoying, and they spread diseases. So, why would we want to keep them around? Here’s an article about the work of Dr. Catherine Hill at Purdue University. https://www.morningagclips.com/why-mosquitoes-should-not-be-eliminated/
Millipedes are common occasional pests that sometimes invade buildings, particularly during very hot, dry weather, or after heavy rainfall. Millipedes do not bite, sting, or transmit diseases, nor do they infest food, clothing or dry, structurally sound wood. Therefore, they are considered more of a nuisance pest, although they can give off an unpleasant odor.
Millipedes vary in both color and size. The species that most commonly invades buildings is referred to as the “garden millipede,” which is brownish-black in color and about an inch long (see photo at right). When disturbed, millipedes often curl up into a “C” shape and remain motionless. Some people confuse millipedes with centipedes, which look somewhat similar. However, centipedes have only one pair of legs per body segment, while millipedes have two pair of legs per body segment. Centipedes also tend to move about more quickly than millipedes.
Millipedes pass the winter primarily as adults and lay their eggs in the soil in the spring. Individuals may live for several years. Millipedes are attracted to dark, cool, moist environments that are rich in organic matter, such as compost piles, heavily mulched areas, rotting logs, or the soil under logs and stones. They usually go unnoticed because they live in these relatively hidden habitats. Millipedes are scavengers, feeding primarily on decomposing vegetation, but occasionally they will damage soft-stemmed plants in gardens.
Major nuisance problems usually occur when the conditions become too hot and dry and the millipedes move to find moisture, or else when it’s too wet and water-saturated soils force them to the surface and higher ground where they often end up on concrete slabs, foundations and siding. Millipedes may also migrate in the fall, presumably in search of overwintering sites. All of these activities result in millipedes invading crawl spaces, basements, and other areas of buildings. Common points of entry include door thresholds (especially at the base of sliding glass doors, garage doors, etc.), expansion joints, and through the voids of concrete block walls. Frequent indoor sightings of these pests usually means that there are large numbers breeding outdoors in the lawn, or beneath mulch, leaf litter or debris close to the foundation. Millipedes do not survive indoors for more than a few days (more likely just a few hours) unless they can find suitable moist conditions.
Emphasis should be placed on reducing conditions and access points favorable to millipede invasions:
Minimize Moisture, Remove Debris – the most effective, long-term measure for reducing entry of millipedes (and many other pests) is to reduce excess moisture and hiding places, especially near the foundation:
Remove leaves, grass clippings, heavy accumulations of mulch, wooden boards, stones, boxes, and similar items laying on the ground beside the foundation. This does not mean you can’t have mulch around the foundation; simply keep it 6-12″ away from the wall. Consider using an inorganic mulch, such as gravel, which will drain better (see photo at right).
Prevent water from accumulating near the foundation, in basement walls or in the crawl space. Keep gutters and down spouts free of debris and use either splash guards or perforated pipe to reduce puddling. Homes with poor drainage may need to have foundation drains installed, or the surrounding ground contoured or sloped to redirect surface water away from the foundation.
Repair leaking exterior water spigots and prevent water from puddling where there are drip lines from air conditioning units. Reduce the humidity in crawl spaces and basements by providing adequate ventilation, sump pumps, polyethylene soil covers, dehumidifiers, etc.
Since millipedes thrive in the moist, dense thatch layer of poorly maintained turf. De-thatching the lawn and keeping the grass mowed should make the lawn less suitable for millipedes. Over-watering may also contribute to millipede problems.
Application of insecticides along baseboards and other interior living areas of the home do not really stop millipede invasions. Once indoors, millipedes end up in kitchens, living rooms, etc., and soon die from a lack of moisture. Remove them with a vacuum cleaner or broom.
Applications of insecticide outdoors may help to reduce inward invasion of millipedes and other pests. Treat along entryways, around crawl space doors, foundation vents and utility openings, and up underneath siding. Perimeter sprays (shown at left) may also help but are rarely 100% effective in stopping the millipedes. Pesticides labeled for outdoor use around homes, such as products made by Bayer, Ortho, and Spectracide may be purchased from local hardware stores. The key to successful chemical control is spray volume; i.e., that amount of diluted chemical that you apply over an area. The spray must penetrate the soil, not simply lightly coat the surface. The best means of application for homeowners is a garden hose attachment. Treat a 2-5 foot wide area of ground along the foundation in mulched, ornamental plant beds and grassy areas, as well as an 18-24 inch wide vertical band of the foundation wall.
When treating outdoor areas, remember these important points
Spraying mulch is ineffective because the chemical can bind to the mulch and not penetrate to the soil. Heavy accumulations of mulch and leaf litter should be raked back from the foundation first to expose millipede hiding areas and allow the pesticide to penetrate the soil more readily.
Keep children and pets away from treated areas until the chemical dries (or longer if specified on the product label).
Watch out for pesticide drifting and contaminating toys, swimming pools, and other objects, such as grills.
Pest information and control recommendations presented here were developed for North Carolina and may not be appropriate for other states or regions. Any recommendations for the use of chemicals are included solely as a convenience to the reader and do not imply that insecticides are necessarily the sole or most appropriate method of control. Any mention of brand names or listing of commercial products or services in the publication does not imply endorsements by North Carolina Cooperative Extension nor discrimination against similar products or services. All recommendations for pesticide use were legal at the time of publication, but the status of pesticide registrations and use patterns are subject to change by actions of state and federal regulatory agencies. Individuals who use chemicals are responsible for using these products according to the regulations in their state and to the guidelines on the product label. Before applying any chemical, always obtain current information about its use and read the product label carefully. For assistance, contact the Cooperative Extension Center in your county.
Distributed in furtherance of the acts of Congress of May 8 and June 30, 1914. North Carolina State University and North Carolina A&T State University commit themselves to positive action to secure equal opportunity regardless of race, color, creed, national origin, religion, sex, age, or disability. In addition, the two Universities welcome all persons without regard to sexual orientation. North Carolina State University, North Carolina A&T State University, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and local governments cooperating.
Clover Mites. Clover mites are occasional invaders that can become a problem in early spring. They are tiny (1/30-inch long), red to reddish- brown, oval-shaped mites. Clover mites, as do other arachnids, have 8 legs. They hold the front pair of legs straight out in front of the head. Many people actually mistake this pair of legs for antennae (Figure 1). Clover mites do not bite nor do they burrow under the skin. They are strictly plant feeders. Hosts include grasses, clover, and dandelion, to name a few.
Most heavy outbreaks occur in the early spring, especially around heavily fertilized lawns. The mites may invade homes and can leave a reddish-brown stain if crushed.
Control. An 18”-24” grass and weed-free zone around the structure’s perimeter can greatly reduce the number of invading clover mites (Figure 2). Treat a 5-10 foot wide area of ground along the foundation, as well as an 18-24 inch wide vertical band of the foundation wall with an appropriately labeled residual liquid insecticide.
Many plants are actually unattractive to clover mites, including geranium, marigold, zinnia, salvia, rose, chrysanthemum petunia, juniper, spruce, yew and barberry. Planting these non-attractive plants in the weed-free zone will help reduce the number of clover mites around the structure. You may also recommend that your customers contact their county Cooperative Extension Center for advice on proper fertilization of their lawns.
The application of insecticides indoors for clover mites is not warranted. Your customer should simply use a vacuum cleaner to collect any mites found indoors. Care should be taken not to crush the mites. The vacuum bag should be sealed in a disposable plastic bag before throwing it away.
Carpenter Bees. Like other bees, carpenter bees are beneficial in that they pollinate crops and home gardens. However, homeowners are often frightened about being stung by the carpenter bees as they hover around their homes and other wooden structures while searching for mates and favorable sites to construct their nests. A male carpenter bee may be “aggressive” when protecting its nesting site, but is harmless because it does not have a stinger. And although a female has a stinger, she will not usually sting unless handled or bothered.
Carpenter bees nest in wood; common nesting sites include house siding, eaves, window trim, fascia boards, decks, fences, and outdoor furniture.
One sign of carpenter bee infestation is the nearly perfect round 1⁄2-inch entrance holes in exposed exterior wooden surfaces (Figure 3). Another sign of activity is the pile of coarse sawdust underneath freshly drilled holes. The sawdust is cast out while carpenter bees excavate tunnels. Yet another sign of infestation is the yellow or brown staining from voided fecal matter.
Carpenter bees can cause considerable structural damage from repeated colonization of the same area. Woodpeckers often peck through the wood surface of carpenter bees’ tunnels to prey on the larvae inside, thus causing even more damage.
Prevention & Control. Bare, unpainted, or weathered softwood is especially vulnerable to carpenter bee attack. To help prevent carpenter bee infestation, paint or varnish all wood surfaces. For the best results, apply two coats of a good exterior primer and follow up with at least one coat of finish. Painting is not practical for many wood surfaces, however, and wood stains provide little protection.
In some cases, standard window screening can be used to keep bees from getting to areas of unpainted surfaces or other places where it might be difficult to paint. Strips of metal window screening work best; don’t use the fabric or plastic type. The screening can then be wedged or stapled into areas the bees are infesting.
Spray or dust insecticide may be placed directly into the carpenter bees’ entrance holes or adjacent wood surface to reduce carpenter bee activity. These control efforts should be attempted in late afternoon or at night when the bees are inside the wood tunnels. Treated tunnels may be sealed with caulk or wood putty (Figure 4); however, do not plug the holes immediately. Bees should be able to pass freely through the nest entrance where they will contact the insecticide and distribute it inside the tunnels. Also, any new mature bees will emerge through the openings and contact the insecticide placed there. In the fall, the holes should be filled with caulk or wood putty.
Paper Wasps. Another insect you may begin receiving calls about (if you haven’t already!) is the paper wasp. We all know that these insects can become a problem in the fall as the inseminated queens invade homes in search of overwintering sites. But paper wasps can also become a problem in the spring. As spring approaches and temperatures begin to climb, queens that spent the winter in structures become active and fly about. If they have been resting in an attic, wall void or crawlspace, the wasps may be attracted to light coming through a gap in the baseboard or a wall fixture, or around an AC vent and emerge inside the building. Since there are no nests or young to defend, the only real danger of being stung is from accidentally stepping on or pressing against one.
Control. Queens that are found indoors may simply be swatted, or vacuumed. If a queen does manage to get outdoors and start a nest, a broom may be all that is needed to knock it down.
If a wasp nest has had some time to grow and is considered to be a hazard, they are most easily destroyed in the evening with an aerosol insecticide that is labeled for “hornets or wasps” (Figure 5).
Solitary Ground-Nesting Bees. There are several kinds of small hairy or metallic bees that dig into the soil to nest, often collectively referred to as digger bees. This is a diverse group that comes from different families and the term digger bee can include the andrenid bees, halictid bees, and colletid bees. These are solitary bees and native pollinators that are active early in the season.
Each female digs a cylindrical underground tunnel as a nest (as opposed to social bees such as honey bees where only the queen reproduces and maintains a colony with the help of sterile workers). The underground nest is provisioned with a mixture of nectar and pollen collected from nearby flowering plants. This serves as food for the bee’s offspring (larvae) that develop in the underground chamber and emerge as adults the following year.
Digger bees usually emerge in May and are active for a relatively short period – about 6-8 weeks or so. The first sign of digger bees in lawns is often little mounds of soil with a hole nearby (see Figure 6). The ground bees will also be flying over this area.
Control. Ground bees like dry soils. Watering the soil when bees first become active may deter nesting. Ground bees also prefer to nest in dry areas where the grass is thin. If possible, correct the problems making the turf thin. Find ways to thicken the turf in these areas to reduce ground bee problems. In areas that will not grow grass, mulching the area can help as well.
If the bees are flying around and attempting to nest in sandboxes or other areas children play, another option is to temporarily cover the area with a tarp until the bees have moved on (see Figure 7).
If you feel a pesticide is warranted, watch during the day to see where the holes are located. Each hole (nest) may then be treated directly with a dust or spray insecticide. A dust insecticide may cling to the bee’s body better than a spray. Keep people and pets out of the area while it is being treated.
Multi-colored Asian ladybird beetles.
Adult multi-colored Asian ladybird beetles are convex in shape and about 1/4” long. Specimens from higher elevations are larger than those from the Piedmont and Coastal Plains. There are usually ten black spots on each forewing, but some have fewer spots or faded spots and some have no spots at all (see Figure 1).
Adult beetles begin laying eggs on host plants in early spring. Eggs hatch in three to five days. Larvae are orange & black in color. Larvae molt four times, becoming larger after each molt, and enter an immobile pupal stage after the last molt. After several days, the adult beetle emerges from the pupal case.
Multicolored Asian lady beetles are effective predators of aphids and some scale insects and are extremely beneficial for both agricultural and horticultural crops.
As temperatures start to drop in the fall, adult beetles begin to search for suitable overwintering sites. They tend to congregate on the sunnier or warmer sides of buildings, or on exposed, light-colored buildings. Of course, this doesn’t mean that people with dark-colored siding, brick or log homes are immune to the lady beetle assault. On warm winter days, the beetles may become active and move towards light or bright surfaces. They are often found on windows, light fixtures and ceilings. Multi-colored Asian ladybird beetles do not reproduce indoors; in the spring, they will move outdoors in search of prey.
Ladybird beetles are primarily a nuisance. They do not eat wood or furniture. However, the beetles may stain fabric and painted surfaces if squashed. In addition, there have been concerns that large numbers of beetles may possibly cause air quality problems indoors that could trigger allergies and/or asthmatic reactions.
While it is not 100% effective, preventing the beetles from entering structures is one of the best long-term approaches for dealing with ladybird beetles. Recommend that clients install tight-fitting sweeps on exterior doors and weather stripping around door frames. Openings where utility pipes and wires enter the foundation and siding should be sealed. Make sure that window screens are in good condition. Indoor sprays tend to be ineffective against ladybird beetles. Invading beetles should simply be vacuumed up. The vacuum bag should be sealed up and disposed of. Outdoors, a residual spray insecticide may be applied around windows, doors, eaves, soffits, attic vents, etc.
Brown marmorated stink bug.
Its first detection in North Carolina was in Forsyth County in 2009, and it has since spread rapidly throughout the piedmont and mountain regions of the state. The coastal plain has had fewer occurrences during this period, although the insect has appeared in isolated locations. As of June 2016, it had been confirmed in 70 of NC’s 100 counties.
Adult brown marmorated stink bugs are slightly larger than 1/2” and vary in color from brown to gray. Adults have characteristic brown and white bands on the outer edge of the thorax, and white and brown banding on the next to last antennal segment (see Figure 2).
Adult females lay egg masses in midsummer. There are five nymphal stages. New adults emerge in late summer. In the fall, adult brown marmorated stink bugs aggregate on and inside houses, sheds and other structures in search of an overwintering sites. The bugs can give off a characteristic odor if they are crushed or disturbed.
Just as with ladybird beetles, exclusion goes a long way in preventing brown marmorated stink bug invasions. Make sure exterior doors have tight-fitting sweeps, seal openings where utility pipes and wires enter the foundation, and make sure window screens are in good condition.
The use of pesticides indoors for controlling the brown marmorated stink bug is not warranted; invading stink bugs should be removed with a vacuum cleaner. Outdoors, a residual spray applied around windows, doors, soffits, attic vents, and other potential entry points may provide some relief.
Adult paper wasps are about ¾” to 1” long and reddish brown to dark brown in color with yellow stripes on the abdomen. They are actually beneficial in that they feed on other insects.
Paper wasps live in nests that usually contain around 250 individuals. Paper-like nests, shaped like tiny umbrellas (see Figure 3) are attached by a short stem to eaves, porch ceilings, attic rafters, decks, and other such protected places.
Paper wasp colonies are annual; workers die off in the fall and only inseminated queens survive. The surviving queens are often seen hovering around chimneys and rooflines as they search for a suitable place to spend the winter. On warm winter days, the queens may become active and may move into living areas of the home through openings such as heating vents, baseboards, and gaps around light fixtures.
Wasps that invade homes can be controlled mechanically, by swatting or vacuuming, or with an aerosol insecticide. Openings through which wasps can enter the structure should be caulked or sealed. In homes, attic vents should be properly vented to exclude overwintering queens. If an established nest is found in the attic, a total-release aerosol may be used on a warm day. Follow the product label instructions concerning how many cans are needed for the size area you are treating. Never exceed this number of units, and always be careful using these products near open flames.
If all the workers have not yet died, and a nest poses a hazard, use a Wasp & Hornet spray that will propel the insecticide about 10-15 feet and direct the spray into the nest opening for 5-10 seconds (see Figure 4).
Face flies and cluster flies.
Adult face flies are about 3/8-inch long, slightly larger than the house fly. Females have a gray thorax with 4 dark stripes and the abdomen is mostly black with an orange base, while the male’s abdomen is orange-brown with a black base (see Figure 5)
Female face flies feed primarily on the tears, saliva, mucous, blood, and excrement of pasturing animals, especially cattle. They do not actually bite their victims. Male face flies spend their time perched on vegetation, awaiting mates. Face flies are most likely to invade farm homes or homes located near pastures or where cattle are kept.
Adult cluster flies are slightly larger than the house fly and dull gray in color with black markings. The thorax is covered with distinct golden-yellow hairs (see Figure 6).
Cluster flies have an interesting life history in that they are parasites of earthworms. Adults lay eggs on the soil and the hatching larvae enter earthworms, develop to their last larval stage, pupate and emerge as adults.
In the fall, adult cluster flies seek protected over-wintering sites within the cracks, crevices and voids of structures. Fortunately, they do not damage structures, but they may leave small dark-colored spots of excrement on windows and walls.
As with other overwintering pests, exclusion is one of the best approaches to preventing cluster fly and face fly invasions. Cracks around windows, doors, siding, utility pipes, behind chimneys, and underneath the fascia and other openings should be sealed. Damaged screens on doors and windows should be repaired or replaced. Light traps may be placed in voids or drop ceilings to help reduce fly numbers.
Indoor crack & crevice & void applications where flies are overwintering may be helpful. However, piles of dead flies left in the walls can sometimes lead to secondary infestations of carpet beetles. When using exterior sprays, it may be more effective to concentrate the chemical on the sunny side of the house, where the flies tend to aggregate.