Spring Pests Abound

Figure 1. Clover mite. (Photo: Rayanne Lehman, Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture)

Clover Mites. Clover mites are occasional invaders that can become a problem in early spring. They are tiny (1/30-inch long), red to reddish- brown, oval-shaped mites. Clover mites, as do other arachnids, have 8 legs. They hold the front pair of legs straight out in front of the head. Many people actually mistake this pair of legs for antennae (Figure 1). Clover mites do not bite nor do they burrow under the skin. They are strictly plant feeders. Hosts include grasses, clover, and dandelion, to name a few.

Most heavy outbreaks occur in the early spring, especially around heavily fertilized lawns. The mites may invade homes and can leave a reddish-brown stain if crushed.

Control. An 18”-24” grass and weed-free zone around the structure’s perimeter can greatly reduce the number of invading clover mites (Figure 2). Treat a 5-10 foot wide area of ground along the foundation, as well as an 18-24 inch wide vertical band of the foundation wall with an appropriately labeled residual liquid insecticide.

Figure 2. Placing gravel around the structure can help prevent clover mite invasions (Photo: M. Waldvogel, NCSU).

Many plants are actually unattractive to clover mites, including geranium, marigold, zinnia, salvia, rose, chrysanthemum petunia, juniper, spruce, yew and barberry. Planting these non-attractive plants in the weed-free zone will help reduce the number of clover mites around the structure. You may also recommend that your customers contact their county Cooperative Extension Center for advice on proper fertilization of their lawns.

The application of insecticides indoors for clover mites is not warranted. Your customer should simply use a vacuum cleaner to collect any mites found indoors. Care should be taken not to crush the mites. The vacuum bag should be sealed in a disposable plastic bag before throwing it away.

Carpenter Bees. Like other bees, carpenter bees are beneficial in that they pollinate crops and home gardens. However, homeowners are often frightened about being stung by the carpenter bees as they hover around their homes and other wooden structures while searching for mates and favorable sites to construct their nests. A male carpenter bee may be “aggressive” when protecting its nesting site, but is harmless because it does not have a stinger. And although a female has a stinger, she will not usually sting unless handled or bothered.

Carpenter bees nest in wood; common nesting sites include house siding, eaves, window trim, fascia boards, decks, fences, and outdoor furniture.

Figure 3. Carpenter bee entrance hole. (Photo: Patty Alder, NCSU)

One sign of carpenter bee infestation is the nearly perfect round 1⁄2-inch entrance holes in exposed exterior wooden surfaces (Figure 3). Another sign of activity is the pile of coarse sawdust underneath freshly drilled holes. The sawdust is cast out while carpenter bees excavate tunnels. Yet another sign of infestation is the yellow or brown staining from voided fecal matter.

Carpenter bees can cause considerable structural damage from repeated colonization of the same area. Woodpeckers often peck through the wood surface of carpenter bees’ tunnels to prey on the larvae inside, thus causing even more damage.

Prevention & Control. Bare, unpainted, or weathered softwood is especially vulnerable to carpenter bee attack. To help prevent carpenter bee infestation, paint or varnish all wood surfaces. For the best results, apply two coats of a good exterior primer and follow up with at least one coat of finish. Painting is not practical for many wood surfaces, however, and wood stains provide little protection.

In some cases, standard window screening can be used to keep bees from getting to areas of unpainted surfaces or other places where it might be difficult to paint. Strips of metal window screening work best; don’t use the fabric or plastic type. The screening can then be wedged or stapled into areas the bees are infesting.

Figure 4. Carpenter bee holes may be sealed with caulk or wood putty. (Photo: Patty Alder, NCSU)

Spray or dust insecticide may be placed directly into the carpenter bees’ entrance holes or adjacent wood surface to reduce carpenter bee activity. These control efforts should be attempted in late afternoon or at night when the bees are inside the wood tunnels. Treated tunnels may be sealed with caulk or wood putty (Figure 4); however, do not plug the holes immediately. Bees should be able to pass freely through the nest entrance where they will contact the insecticide and distribute it inside the tunnels. Also, any new mature bees will emerge through the openings and contact the insecticide placed there. In the fall, the holes should be filled with caulk or wood putty.

Paper Wasps. Another insect you may begin receiving calls about (if you haven’t already!) is the paper wasp. We all know that these insects can become a problem in the fall as the inseminated queens invade homes in search of overwintering sites. But paper wasps can also become a problem in the spring. As spring approaches and temperatures begin to climb, queens that spent the winter in structures become active and fly about. If they have been resting in an attic, wall void or crawlspace, the wasps may be attracted to light coming through a gap in the baseboard or a wall fixture, or around an AC vent and emerge inside the building. Since there are no nests or young to defend, the only real danger of being stung is from accidentally stepping on or pressing against one.

Figure 5. Use an aerosol insecticide to destroy a paper wasp nest (Photo: Patty Alder, NCSU).

Control. Queens that are found indoors may simply be swatted, or vacuumed. If a queen does manage to get outdoors and start a nest, a broom may be all that is needed to knock it down.

If a wasp nest has had some time to grow and is considered to be a hazard, they are most easily destroyed in the evening with an aerosol insecticide that is labeled for “hornets or wasps” (Figure 5).

Solitary Ground-Nesting Bees. There are several kinds of small hairy or metallic bees that dig into the soil to nest, often collectively referred to as digger bees. This is a diverse group that comes from different families and the term digger bee can include the andrenid bees, halictid bees, and colletid bees. These are solitary bees and native pollinators that are active early in the season.

Each female digs a cylindrical underground tunnel as a nest (as opposed to social bees such as honey bees where only the queen reproduces and maintains a colony with the help of sterile workers). The underground nest is provisioned with a mixture of nectar and pollen collected from nearby flowering plants. This serves as food for the bee’s offspring (larvae) that develop in the underground chamber and emerge as adults the following year.

Figure 6. Digger bee mounds. (Photo from Ornamental Entomology ListServe)

Digger bees usually emerge in May and are active for a relatively short period – about 6-8 weeks or so. The first sign of digger bees in lawns is often little mounds of soil with a hole nearby (see Figure 6). The ground bees will also be flying over this area.

Control. Ground bees like dry soils. Watering the soil when bees first become active may deter nesting. Ground bees also prefer to nest in dry areas where the grass is thin. If possible, correct the problems making the turf thin. Find ways to thicken the turf in these areas to reduce ground bee problems. In areas that will not grow grass, mulching the area can help as well.

Figure 7. Sand boxes and other play areas may be covered with a tarp to reduce bee activity. (Photo: Mike Waldvogel, NCSU)

If the bees are flying around and attempting to nest in sandboxes or other areas children play, another option is to temporarily cover the area with a tarp until the bees have moved on (see Figure 7).

If you feel a pesticide is warranted, watch during the day to see where the holes are located. Each hole (nest) may then be treated directly with a dust or spray insecticide. A dust insecticide may cling to the bee’s body better than a spray. Keep people and pets out of the area while it is being treated.

Unwanted Fall Pests

Multi-colored Asian ladybird beetles.


Figure 1. Multi-colored Asian ladybird beetles. (Photo: Bruce Watt, University of Maine, Bugwood.org).

Adult multi-colored Asian ladybird beetles are convex in shape and about 1/4” long. Specimens from higher elevations are larger than those from the Piedmont and Coastal Plains. There are usually ten black spots on each forewing, but some have fewer spots or faded spots and some have no spots at all (see Figure 1).

Adult beetles begin laying eggs on host plants in early spring. Eggs hatch in three to five days. Larvae are orange & black in color. Larvae molt four times, becoming larger after each molt, and enter an immobile pupal stage after the last molt. After several days, the adult beetle emerges from the pupal case.

Multicolored Asian lady beetles are effective predators of aphids and some scale insects and are extremely beneficial for both agricultural and horticultural crops.

As temperatures start to drop in the fall, adult beetles begin to search for suitable overwintering sites. They tend to congregate on the sunnier or warmer sides of buildings, or on exposed, light-colored buildings. Of course, this doesn’t mean that people with dark-colored siding, brick or log homes are immune to the lady beetle assault. On warm winter days, the beetles may become active and move towards light or bright surfaces. They are often found on windows, light fixtures and ceilings. Multi-colored Asian ladybird beetles do not reproduce indoors; in the spring, they will move outdoors in search of prey.

Ladybird beetles are primarily a nuisance. They do not eat wood or furniture. However, the beetles may stain fabric and painted surfaces if squashed. In addition, there have been concerns that large numbers of beetles may possibly cause air quality problems indoors that could trigger allergies and/or asthmatic reactions.

While it is not 100% effective, preventing the beetles from entering structures is one of the best long-term approaches for dealing with ladybird beetles. Recommend that clients install tight-fitting sweeps on exterior doors and weather stripping around door frames. Openings where utility pipes and wires enter the foundation and siding should be sealed. Make sure that window screens are in good condition. Indoor sprays tend to be ineffective against ladybird beetles. Invading beetles should simply be vacuumed up. The vacuum bag should be sealed up and disposed of. Outdoors, a residual spray insecticide may be applied around windows, doors, eaves, soffits, attic vents, etc.

Brown marmorated stink bug.

Its first detection in North Carolina was in Forsyth County in 2009, and it has since spread rapidly throughout the piedmont and mountain regions of the state. The coastal plain has had fewer occurrences during this period, although the insect has appeared in isolated locations. As of June 2016, it had been confirmed in 70 of NC’s 100 counties.


Figure 2. Adult brown marmorated stink bug. (Photo: Patty Alder, NCSU)

Adult brown marmorated stink bugs are slightly larger than 1/2” and vary in color from brown to gray. Adults have characteristic brown and white bands on the outer edge of the thorax, and white and brown banding on the next to last antennal segment (see Figure 2).

Adult females lay egg masses in midsummer. There are five nymphal stages. New adults emerge in late summer. In the fall, adult brown marmorated stink bugs aggregate on and inside houses, sheds and other structures in search of an overwintering sites. The bugs can give off a characteristic odor if they are crushed or disturbed.

Just as with ladybird beetles, exclusion goes a long way in preventing brown marmorated stink bug invasions. Make sure exterior doors have tight-fitting sweeps, seal openings where utility pipes and wires enter the foundation, and make sure window screens are in good condition.

The use of pesticides indoors for controlling the brown marmorated stink bug is not warranted; invading stink bugs  should be removed with a vacuum cleaner. Outdoors, a residual spray applied around windows, doors, soffits, attic vents, and other potential entry points may provide some relief.

Paper wasps.

Adult paper wasps are about ¾” to 1” long and reddish brown to dark brown in color with yellow stripes on the abdomen. They are actually beneficial in that they feed on other insects.


Figure 3. Paper wasps build single-comb umbrella-shaped nests (Photo: Whitney Cranshaw, CSU, Bugwood.org).

Paper wasps live in nests that usually contain around 250 individuals. Paper-like nests, shaped like tiny umbrellas (see Figure 3) are attached by a short stem to eaves, porch ceilings, attic rafters, decks, and other such protected places.

Paper wasp colonies are annual; workers die off in the fall and only inseminated queens survive. The surviving queens are often seen hovering around chimneys and rooflines as they search for a suitable place to spend the winter. On warm winter days, the queens may become active and may move into living areas of the home through openings such as heating vents, baseboards, and gaps around light fixtures.


Figure 4. Paper wasp nests should be treated with a Wasp & Hornet spray that can propel the insecticide 10-15 feet (Photo: Patty Alder, NCSU).

Wasps that invade homes can be controlled mechanically, by swatting or vacuuming, or with an aerosol insecticide. Openings through which wasps can enter the structure should be caulked or sealed. In homes, attic vents should be properly vented to exclude overwintering queens. If an established nest is found in the attic, a total-release aerosol may be used on a warm day. Follow the product label instructions concerning how many cans are needed for the size area you are treating. Never exceed this number of units, and always be careful using these products near open flames.

If all the workers have not yet died, and a nest poses a hazard, use a Wasp & Hornet spray that will propel the insecticide about 10-15 feet and direct the spray into the nest opening for 5-10 seconds (see Figure 4).

Face flies and cluster flies.


Figure 5. Adult face fly. (Photo: University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension)

Adult face flies are about 3/8-inch long, slightly larger than the house fly. Females have a gray thorax with 4 dark stripes and the abdomen is mostly black with an orange base, while the male’s abdomen is orange-brown with a black base (see Figure 5)

Female face flies feed primarily on the tears, saliva, mucous, blood, and excrement of pasturing animals, especially cattle. They do not actually bite their victims. Male face flies spend their time perched on vegetation, awaiting mates. Face flies are most likely to invade farm homes or homes located near pastures or where cattle are kept.


Figure 6. Adult cluster fly. (Photo: Susan Ellis, Bugwood.org)

Adult cluster flies are slightly larger than the house fly and dull gray in color with black markings. The thorax is covered with distinct golden-yellow hairs (see Figure 6).

Cluster flies have an interesting life history in that they are parasites of earthworms. Adults lay eggs on the soil and the hatching larvae enter earthworms, develop to their last larval stage, pupate and emerge as adults.

In the fall, adult cluster flies seek protected over-wintering sites within the cracks, crevices and voids of structures. Fortunately, they do not damage structures, but they may leave small dark-colored spots of excrement on windows and walls.

As with other overwintering pests, exclusion is one of the best approaches to preventing cluster fly and face fly invasions. Cracks around windows, doors, siding, utility pipes, behind chimneys, and underneath the fascia and other openings should be sealed. Damaged screens on doors and windows should be repaired or replaced. Light traps may be placed in voids or drop ceilings to help reduce fly numbers.

Indoor crack & crevice & void applications where flies are overwintering may be helpful. However, piles of dead flies left in the walls can sometimes lead to secondary infestations of carpet beetles. When using exterior sprays, it may be more effective to concentrate the chemical on the sunny side of the house, where the flies tend to aggregate.

Post-Hurricane Pests Problems

Flooded roads and railroad trailsThe problems that follow disasters such as Hurricane Matthew with loss of electricity and water, as well as damage to our homes, schools and workplace, bring a variety of unwanted pest problems as well. The extent of these problems depends in part the seasonal cycle of pest activity. Visit our Extension Portal for look at some typical pest problems that we can expect to see.

Zika Virus & Mosquito Control – More than pesticides

(Note – this posting has been updated from the original posting on August 5th to reflect new numbers from the CDC and recent incidences involving pesticide applications).

The reports locally-transmitted cases of Zika virus on the mainland U.S. (in south Florida) has had the media and the public in a frenzy and raising concern  about spending time outdoors, personal protection, and the need to control mosquitoes.

As of August 31st 2016, the CDC has reported 2,717 confirmed case of Zika virus in the U.S. New York was #1 with 625 cases (23% of the total) but these were all travel-related (not acquired in the U.S.). Florida ranked #2 with 507 travel-related cases (19% of the total) and has the distinction of being the only state to date with locally acquired mosquito-transmitted cases of Zika virus (30 cases).  North Carolina remained at #13 with 48 travel-related cases, but zero cases of locally-transmitted Zika virus.  Pennsylvania has the only recorded accidental laboratory exposure.  Compare these stats with the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico which has over 13,791 locally-transmitted cases of Zika virus.

Florida has intensified its efforts to manage the Zika problem by implementing both ground and aerial spraying and South Carolina recently had an incident involving a massive bee kill (an estimated 3 million bees in 43 colonies) during aerial spraying intended to reduce populations of Aedes aegypti, which the media and public refer to as the “Zika-carrying mosquito”.  It’s worth noting that Aedes aegypti has not been found in North Carolina for years, although there is an active survey program underway to see if it has resurfaced.

At this point, our focus should remain on reducing mosquito populations helps reduce both the nuisance biting aspect as well as the risk of exposure to other mosquito-borne diseases.  All of the attention has been on Zika,  but we also have “resident” diseases  such as West Nile virus (WNV), eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) and LaCrosse encephalitis (LAC) which show up in relatively low numbers in our state nearly every year.  This fact is not intended to send people into a panic either. In the ten year period of 2003-2012, NC had human cases of EEE and 43 cases of WNV, and 187 cases of LAC which points to a low likelihood of a problem occurring.   On July 2nd of this year, the NCDA&CS reported the first fatal case of EEE in a horse in Pitt County (eastern NC).   With the recent rains and still several more weeks to our long hot summer, we’re likely to see additional cases in horses and possibly some human cases as well.

It’s important to understand the difference between these diseases and Zika virus.  The reason that WNV, EEE, and LACV are more likely to occur here is that those viruses are found in local reservoirs including wild bird populations (such as robins and crows) and some rodents.  That shouldn’t be cause for alarm or concern about seeing birds in your yard.  The only way for a person (or horse) to get one of these diseases is by being bitten by a mosquito that had first found and fed on an infected bird (which explains why the diseases are not extremely common here). More importantly, a mosquito cannot pick up enough virus from biting a sick person (or horse) and to be able to transfer to another person.  Zika virus presents a different situation.  So far, it.has only been found in humans.  So, a mosquito has to bite an infected person within a few days after that person becomes ill in order for it to pick up the virus and then transfer it later when it bites someone else.  Since the cases of Zika virus in North Carolina have (to date) are people who became infected while outside the U.S., the likelihood of them being bitten by a mosquito within the early days of the infection (when the virus is replicating) is extremely low.  So, just as when we talk about ticks and tick-borne diseases, getting bit by a mosquito does not mean you need to run to a doctor and “get tested” for one of the viral  diseases.  Most people infected with EEE don’t exhibit any symptoms. With West Nile virus, .

loose window screen allows flies and mosquitoes to enter

Make sure window screens fit properly to exclude mosquitoes. (Photo – M. Waldvogel, NCSU)

Integrated Mosquito Management

When used properly, pesticides are an important component of a mosquito control program.  However, we can actually have a far greater long-term impact on mosquito populations when we use an integrated mosquito management approach which starts  with some simple and common sense tactics, such as keeping mosquitoes out of our homes and businesses. Although this sounds easy enough for those of us who have air conditioning and can keep our homes closed up tightly, there are many people who do not have air conditioning and must keep their windows and doors open and rely on fans to circulate some fresh (and hopefully cooler) air throughout their house.  In those situations, keeping window and door screens in good condition and fitting properly is critical to keeping out mosquitoes.



Asian tiger mosquito (photo – Susan Ellis (www.bugwood.org)

Although we have about 65 species of mosquitoes in North Carolina, our primary “mosquito of interest” is the Asian tiger mosquito (ATM), Aedes albopictus (see here). The primary “vector” or transmitted of Zika virus is the “yellow fever mosquito”, Aedes aegypti, which has not been found in recent surveys in North Carolina  (but could possibly show up at some point). Back to our main culprit – Asian tiger mosquito likes to feed during the daytime when we’re out working and/or playing, but it will feed “dawn to dusk”. If we really want to put a dent in the mosquito populations around our homes and communities, then we need to focus on the fancy-sounding concept of source reduction. What that simply means is we need to get out in our yards and community and find ways to  disrupt or (preferably) eliminate the many mosquito breeding sites that that can be around our homes and are likely due to our own activities (or inactivities!).  Asian tiger mosquito does not breed in lakes or ponds (it may be found in pockets of water along the fringes of lakes or ponds). It prefers to lay its eggs in temporary resources –  objects/areas that fill with debris and water (or will fill with water). The debris is a food source for the hatching larvae (immature mosquitoes) and as the water slowly stagnates, it attracts more female mosquitoes.  The eggs are very durable and can survive cold winter temperature as well as periods of drought.  It may actually take several periods of flooding and drying in these areas before all of the mosquito eggs hatch.  However, when eggs hatch, a new generation of mosquitoes can be produced in two weeks.

An unpublished study in the 1980s led by Dr. Charles Apperson (Entomology professor emeritus at NCSU) looked at potential Asian tiger mosquito breeding sites found in typical residential settings down in the Wilmington area.  Here’s what they found:

Containers used as breeding sites by Aedes albopictus
Source No. Positive Total Examined Percent
Misc. containers 92 148 62.2%
Buckets 24 39 61.5%
Plant dishes 33 48 68.8%
Tree holes 7 8 85.5%
Plastic film (tarps) 8 11 72.7%
Bird baths 8 27 29.6%
Tires 11 20 55.0%
Toys 8 14 57.1%

Quite obviously – in the war against the Asian tiger mosquito, we are often our own worst enemy.  If we are serious about wanting to reduce mosquito populations and reduce the likelihood of mosquito-borne diseases, then we need to focus our attention on a community-wide effort to “tip and toss” these mosquito breeding sites:

Bird baths with stagnating water and debris attract mosquitoes to lay eggs.

Bird bath with stagnant water. (Photo – M. Waldvogel, NCSU)

Bird baths – clean them out periodically and  flush them out routinely with a garden hose.  You’ll flush out the mosquito larvae in the process. Plus, the birds will appreciate the fresh water.  Do the same with the outdoor water bowls for your pets.  Horse (and livestock) owners that have water troughs near stalls or out in pastures can also use products such as “Mosquito Dunks®” which contain the bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis which kill mosquito larvae (but not adult mosquitoes) and a few fly species while not posing a hazard to the animals that use the troughs as their drinking water.


Paint cans that collect rainwater will become mosquito breeding sites

Asian tiger mosquito larvae in a paint can filled with debris and rainwater. (Photo – M. Waldvogel, NCSU)

Cans and other containers – now is the time to empty them and dispose of them properly at your municipal recycling center (if suitable) or at a designated landfill. Improperly/illegally discarded items such as cans, appliances, tires, etc. can become  a serious problem in terms of mosquitoes.






Plastic tarp over a pool and filled with stagnant water, algae and leaves.

Swimming pool tarp filled with rainwater, debris and mosquito larvae ( (Photo – M. Waldvogel, NCSU)

Plastic tarps that cover your boat, pool, grill, firewood, etc. can collect pockets of water that can remain for several weeks.

Swimming pools and kids’ wading pools that are not used or maintained are probably being used by the mosquitoes (and maybe some toads) – empty and overturn them (and make sure that the pool water drains from the area). This same problems can occur with poorly maintained in-ground and large above-ground pools (e.g., pools on abandoned or foreclosed properties). Here’s a picture of a poorly-maintained tarp-covered swimming pool that is collecting stagnant water filled with algae, dead leaves and Asian tiger mosquito larvae.


Keep your gutters free of debris so rainwater drains properly.

Keep your gutters free of debris so rainwater drains properly. (Photo – M. Waldvogel, NCSU)

Gutters – Remove all of the leaves and other debris that build up in your gutters. Although the leaves on the top may seem dry, the water and wet decaying material trapped underneath this layer attract mosquitoes and can also lead to structural problems with wood-decay in the roof and fascia boards and create conditions conducive to problems with wood-damaging pests such as termites and carpenter ants.





Rain barrels under your gutter collect rainwater to use in your garden

Keep rain barrels screened to exclude debris and mosquitoes. (Photo – M. Waldvogel, NCSU)


Rain barrels –  They’re a great way to conserve water resources by collecting rainwater from your roof’s downspouts.  However, they can also unintentionally become a great way to raise mosquitoes.  The commercial versions of these barrels are equipped with screens that  keep out trash and keep mosquitoes from laying eggs inside.  If you decide to make your own rainwater collector by using an old barrel, then you be sure to place ordinary window screening over the top.


black plastic drain pipe with stagnant water inside

Make sure drain pipe tilt down and drain away from your home. (Photo – M. Waldvogel, NCSU)

Downspout drain pipes  – The concept is simple – channel rainwater so that it drains away from your house (and doesn’t pool up against your foundation).  Also, if you install those black plastic drainage pipes to the downspout, remember this thing called “gravity”.  I don’t mean the movie.  Water isn’t going to flow uphill on its own.  Make sure the pipe is placed  properly so that the water drains out and away and water doesn’t pond in one spot near your house.  Here’s a picture of a plastic pipe behind a restaurant in Raleigh where even a slight upturn in the pipe causes water to pool and stagnate inside it and so it becomes an Asian tiger mosquito habitat and dines in the dining patrons.. (My thanks to Randy Buchanan with the Henrico Co. (VA) DPWEES Standing Water Initiative for mentioning this common problem to me).



Clutter in yards will become mosquito breeding sites

Clutter in this yard collects and holds storm water & debris which attracts mosquitoes

Trash, trash cans and tires – Simple equation:  Clutter + Rain = Mosquitoes..  Make sure trash cans have tight-fitting lids which will also keep out pests such as rats and raccoon which can damage trash bags creating more problems.  Discard or at least cover old tires (but don’t let water pool in the plastic cover either!). If you use tires to make a swing for your kids, be sure to drill holes through the bottom of the tires so rain water drains out quickly.


Stormwater collecting in tire in backyard will be a breeding site for mosquitoes

Even the small about of trapped rainwater in this tire can support  hundreds of mosquito larvae (Photo – M. Waldvogel, NCSU)









Debris-clogged drainage ditches become breeding sites for mosquitoes (Photo - M. Waldvogel, NCSU)

Stormwater run-off and debris in drainage ditches become mosquito breeding grounds. (Photo – M. Waldvogel, NCSU)



Drainage ditches – they’re meant to collect storm water that runs off roads and and yards temporarily.  Over time, they also collect soil and debris from storms, erosion and mowing. Keep them free of debris so that water flows and has time to filter into the soil. In the picture to the right from Hurricane Fran (1996), storm and other debris had created a dam at the end of the culvert running under the driveway (arrow) which caused the ditch to become mosquito-infested in just a matter of days


Tree holes created by damaged limbs collect water and debris for mosquito breeding

Tree holes created by damaged limbs collect water and debris for mosquito breeding (Photo – M. Waldvogel, NCSU)

Tree holes – when limbs fall off trees, the remaining hole in the trunk can collect water. Flush out the tree hole and fill the hole with expandable foam (not concrete).

Outdoor flower pots – empty the water from the dishes/trays underneath them. Your plants have plenty of water without the overflow. Overwatering plants can also lead to problems with root rot and fungus gnats infesting the plant soil.


Mosquito Traps
There are a number of traps available at retail stores and online.  Some of these use special chemicals that mimic odors that attract mosquitoes.  The traps will catch lots of mosquitoes if placed properly but using them to “control” mosquitoes is unlikely to succeed.


Personal Protection
The majority of mosquito-borne disease incidences, whether they’re human or otherwise, are due to a lack of personal protection. Horse owners need to spend the time and money to get their horses vaccinated against mosquito-borne diseases.  The Veterinary Division of the NC Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services has advice on protecting horses from eastern equine encephalitis and other diseases. For us two-legged creatures, we simply need to take precautions when we’re outdoors for work or recreation. If it’s too uncomfortable to wear long-sleeved shirts and long pants, then apply insect repellent to your clothing and/or exposed areas of your skin (never apply these repellents under clothing).   We recommend using products registered with the EPA rather than using home-remedies or “web legends” (such as the dryer sheets) that rely on anecdotes rather than actual scientific data to back up their effectiveness.  OSHA has developed some guidelines for workers who work outdoors where they are more likely to encounter mosquitoes (and potentially Zika virus in affected areas).

DEET is the most commonly used repellent and has a proven track record as a repellent.  Some people prefer alternative products which repel mosquitoes but a few of those may have shorter time for which they are effective as compared to DEET. . Consumer Reports did a review of insect repellents to help people decide on which product to use.  Selecting a repellent becomes a matter of common sense – choose a product that fits your needs and your preferences.  Most importantly,  READ THE PRODUCT LABEL and follow the recommendations for how often to apply it.   So, if you prefer a non-DEET product that has a short period of effectiveness, then it’s simply a matter of applying it more frequently (but not over-applying it). Use repellents carefully, particularly on young children. Some repellents are not intended for infants and products with reduced concentrations are often recommended for children under the age of 12 years old.  Never allow children to apply repellents to themselves or to other children.  Spray the chemical on your hands and rub it onto their legs, arms and neck (not on their hands where it can end up in their eyes and mouth).  For infants, mosquito netting placed over a stroller  is an excellent choice.

For more information on mosquito repellents, visit these sites:

Chemical Control

David Tarpy inspecting a bee hive.

Before you spray any pesticide, “bee” aware of bees and other pollinators in your yard and surrounding properties.

There are many products available if you decide to treat your property to kill adult mosquitoes.  Please keep in mind that chemical doesn’t always land where you direct your spray particularly under windy conditions and it can end up on someone else’s property.  Look before you spray and communicate with your neighbors.  Not everyone wants pesticide drifting into their yard.  Make sure you know what’s on the other side of your shrubs.  Read the pesticide label before you spray.  Never treat where children or pets are found (and don’t let them return to the area until the chemical has dried on surfaces).  Many products contain insecticides that cannot be applied to edible plants.  So, it is important to be very careful when spraying near vegetable & herb gardens or fruiting trees.  Even if your your herb garden is for decorative purposes only, you never know when a neighbor or even visiting wildlife may decide to “borrow” a few sprigs.

Many (most) of the insecticide products commonly used against mosquitoes  are “pyrethroids” which are toxic to bees (not just honey bees) and other pollinators and beneficial insects (such as lady beetles).  The product labels  have restrictions on applying them to flowering plants or else restrict their use to times when pollinators are not actively visiting flowers.  If your neighbor has bee hives in his/her backyard, you should talk to them first and make sure chemical doesn’t drift into their backyard (and onto their plants and/or bee hives) and possibly harm the bees.

Most pyrethroid insecticides have “common names” that end in “thrin”.  The common name is not the brand name (like “Mike’s Bug Destroyer”).  The common name is found under the “Active Ingredients” section of the label.  People who are thinking about having their yard sprayed (or their neighbor is having their yard sprayed) have called me asking about these pesticides because they’ve been told by the company that they’re using “the same chemical found in chrysanthemums”.  That statement is true if the company is actually using pyrethrum or “pyrethrins” but is NOT accurate if they’re applying something like bifenthrin or permethrin which are synthetic and chemically altered versions of the pyrethrin molecules (“pyrethroids”).  My advice is that before you have your yard treated by anyone, always ask to see copies of the product’s label and its safety data sheet (formerly called the “MSDS”) so that you know exactly what will be applied  and if it’s being applied according to directions which reduce the risk of exposure for you and the “good bugs”.

There are other products that target mosquito breeding sites and the mosquito larvae& pupae living in them.  Some products contain a bacteria called Bacilllus thuringensis israelensis or “BTi” which is sold under several trade names including “Mosquito Dunks” and “BioBit”.  The bacteria is related to but is not the same BT that many people use in their gardens to kill cabbageworms and cutworms. BTi only affects mosquitoes and a few other fly species (such as fungus gnats and midges).  An advantage of these products is that they do not affect beneficial insects or fish or even livestock that might drink out of water troughs in a pasture (which can also become home to mosquitoes if the water becomes stagnant).

These biological pesticides have an important long-term impact on mosquito populations, but it’s important to remember two things:  First, these chemicals are not a substitute for eliminating mosquito breeding sites wherever possible.  Second, they will not eliminate the mosquitoes we see flying around today (or even the next few days). BTI only affects the mosquito larvae, not the pupae in the water or the adults that are already flying around and so the effect the bacteria will be most noticeable in about 10-14 days IF you take the time to eliminate as many breeding sites as possible.

Natural Control of Mosquitoes 

Not everyone shares my love of bats (the fur-covered flying mammals, not the wooden ones used to hit baseballs).  Some people put up bat boxes in their yards hoping to attract bats to eat the mosquitoes.  While bats do eat mosquitoes, they are “generalists” which simply means they also eat a lot of other flying insects as well.  More importantly, keep in mind that public enemy mosquito #1 in most cases is the Asian tiger mosquito which is active during the day whereas bats are active at dusk/night.   There are birds (such as purple martins) that also eat mosquitoes but they too have a diverse diet.  So, support our local birds and bats but don’t count on them to solver your mosquito problem.

Mosquito fish (also called Gambusia) have also become more popular for natural control of mosquitoes.  These small “guppy-like” fish are famous for their consumption of  mosquito larvae and pupae (the stage right before the adult).  They will also eat other aquatic insects as well as young fish and amphibians.  They have some problems with cold weather and may die out (requiring that you restock the pond).  We also have many native fish that will also put a dent in a pond’s mosquito population.  Because of this fish’s ability to out-compete native species, releasing Gambusia should be limited to closed ponds that do open to public waters.  Also, remember that Asian tiger mosquitoes mostly breed in artificial objects and temporary water sources and so mosquito fish are  not likely to control a backyard (or community) mosquito problem.

FINALLY  – remember that mosquitoes have no concept of property lines.  Even though species such as the Asian tiger mosquito typically fly just short distances (usually less than 100 yards),  the object of the female’s attention is a blood meal whether it’s in your neighbor’s yard or your yard. Mosquito management does work BUT it requires a concerted community effort to be truly effective.  You’ve heard the expression “It takes a village”.  With mosquitoes, it takes just one uncooperative “village idiot” to make your collective efforts fail.

We have more information on mosquito control at http://insects.ncsu.edu/Urban/mosquito.htm.


Any recommendations for the use of chemicals are included solely as a convenience to the reader.  They do not imply that insecticides are necessarily the sole or most appropriate method of control. Any mention of brand names does not imply endorsements by me or by North Carolina Cooperative Extension or NC State University nor does it imply that the product is superior to others   Individuals who use chemicals are responsible for using these products according to the regulations in their state and to the guidelines on the product label. What that really means in plain language is simply don’t be an idiot when you use pesticides. Before applying any chemical, read the product label carefully and follow the instructions for mixing and applying.

Featured Insect: Field Ants (Formica spp.)

Formica ants, often referred to as field ants, are among the United States’ largest and most common ants. Distributed throughout NC, three species make the most common list: Formica pallidefulva and Formica incerta, both rust to red in color, and Formica subscericea, black in color with stripes of sparse golden hairs across their abdomens. Field ants have polymorphic (multiple-sized) workers ranging in size from ⅛ ⅜ inches.

Field ants are commonly mistaken for carpenter (Camponotus) ants. Both are common, medium to large in size, with one node in between the thorax and abdomen. However, the two are quite easy to distinguish with a little practice.

If you look at a carpenter worker ant in side profile, you will notice that its thorax is evenly rounded and forms a single curve (see photo on left below). If you look at a field ant in side profile, you’ll notice that is thorax is not evenly rounded, but that it is broken into two distinct curves (see photo on right below).


An evenly rounded thorax indicates Camponotus. (Image by Antweb.org)


A thorax with two distinct curves indicates Formica. (Image by Antweb.org)








Field ants do not have a stinger, but instead they possess a circlet of hairs around an opening at the tip of their abdomen where formic acid is expelled as a defense mechanism. They may pinch skin with their mouthparts, and then squirt formic acid into the wound, which may feel like being stung.

They are found around structures, but do not often invade homes. They often nest in soil, but nests also may be found under lawn and wood debris such as stacks of firewood, bricks, stepping stones, potted plants, and other protected places. They may also be found nesting in foundation voids.

If control is necessary, try following workers back to their nest site. Once the nest is located, a mound drench with an appropriately labeled insecticide is an option. Or granular bait can be applied around the mound.

If ants are entering structures, a thorough perimeter treatment up and along the foundation wall an appropriate insecticide may be necessary. Treat around doorways and windows, and underneath siding.


Vegetation touching structures should be trimmed back (Image by Patty Alder, NCSU)

In addition, make sure all potential entry points are sealed, especially where electrical and utility lines enter buildings. Any vegetation in contact with the foundation should be trimmed back, if possible (see image at right). Reduce or eliminate sources of moisture around the structure, and store firewood, piles of lumber, and other such items away from the foundation